Spanish National Research Council · University of Seville
 HOME
INTRANET
esp    ing
IMSE-CNM in Digital.CSIC


 


In all publications
Author: Martín Lloret, Pablo
Year: Since 2002
All publications
Generation of Lifetime-Aware Pareto-Optimal Fronts Using a Stochastic Reliability Simulator
A. Toro-Frias, P. Saraza-Canflanca, F. Passos, P. Martin-Lloret, R. Castro-Lopez, E. Roca, J. Martin-Martinez, R. Rodriguez, M. Nafria and F.V. Fernandez
Conference - Design Automation and Test in Europe DATE 2019
[abstract]
Process variability and time-dependent variability have become major concerns in deeply-scaled technologies. Two of the most important time-dependent variability phenomena are Bias Temperature Instability (BTI) and Hot-Carrier Injection (HCI), which can critically shorten the lifetime of circuits. Both BTI and HCI reveal a discrete and stochastic behavior in the nanometer scale, and, while process variability has been extensively treated, there is a lack of design methodologies that address the joint impact of these two phenomena on circuits. In this work, an automated and timeefficient design methodology that takes into account both process and time-dependent variability is presented. This methodology is based on the utilization of lifetime-aware Pareto-Optimal Fronts (POFs). The POFs are generated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm linked to a stochastic simulator. Both the optimization algorithm and the simulator have been specifically tailored to reduce the computational cost of the accurate evaluation of the impact on a circuit of both sources of variability.

Lifetime Calculation Using a Stochastic Reliability Simulator for Analog ICs
A. Toro-Frías, P. Martín-Lloret, J. Martinez, R. Castro-Lopez, E. Roca, R. Rodriguez, M. Nafria and F.V. Fernandez
Conference - Int. Conf. on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design SMACD 2018
[abstract]
With the downscale of integration well into the nanometer scale, designers have to take into account not only the performance of circuits due to time-zero variability but also the degradation due to time-dependent. To evaluate the impact of variability in the performance of the circuit, a critical metric is the time-dependent yield, the percentage of designs that operate correctly with respect to a set of performance constraints and that, in presence of time-dependent variability, varies over time. With this metric, the lifetime of the circuit, or the time the circuit is working within a pre-defined yield threshold, is another crucial metric, even fundamental in many applications that require a high degree in accuracy for its calculation. This work proposes a new efficient simulation methodology to estimate the lifetime using a stochastic reliability simulator that can provide accurate yield and lifetime metrics for analog circuits while keeping CPU times low.

Reliability in the circuit design flow: from characterization and modelling to design automation
R. Castro-López, J. Díaz, J. Martín-Martínez, R. Rodríguez, M. Nafría, A. Toro, P. Martín, E. Roca, F.V. Fernández, E. Barajas, X. Aragonés and D. Mateo
Conference - How to survive in an unreliable world, IEEE CEDA Spain Chapter / NANOVAR Workshop 2017
[abstract]
Designing reliable analog circuits in advanced process technologies requires an accurate understanding of both device performance and variability. The unavoidable and increasingly important process-induced variations is, today, not alone in perturbing the ideal, intended performance of analog circuits: the so-called aging phenomena, like Bias Temperature Instability and Hot Carriers Injection, are altogether making the analog design business a much more tortuous endeavour. The work presented here will paint a complete picture of how to deal with variability in analog circuits for advanced process technologies. This picture starts with the characterisation and modelling of the aging phenomena at the device level. It then will show how these models can be used in the simulation of analog circuits, explaining the issues to overcome and the solutions that can be adopted. With these accurate models and capable circuit simulation techniques, the picture ends with a proposal for an analog design methodology that, using advanced optimization techniques, can successfully take into accounts all sources of variations (process and aging related) so that reliable analog circuits can be attained.

Efficient Computation of Yield and Lifetime for Analog ICs under Process Variabiliy and Aging
A. Toro-Frías, P. Martin-Lloret, R. Castro-López, E. Roca, F.V. Fernández, J. Martin-Martinez, R. Rodriguez and M. Nafria
Conference - Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems DCIS 2017
[abstract]
With the downscale of integration well into the nanometer scale, designers have to take into account not only the performance of circuits due to time-zero variability (i.e., spatial or process variability) but also the degradation due to time-dependent variability (i.e., aging). While process variability has been extensively treated, solutions to cope with aging-related problems are, nowadays, not yet mature enough, especially in the field of analog circuit simulation. Nevertheless, considerable efforts are currently being made to develop new simulation tools and simulation methodologies to evaluate the impact of reliability effects. To evaluate the impact of variability in the performance of the circuit, a critical metric is the time-dependent yield, the percentage of designs that operate correctly with respect to a set of performance constraints and that, in presence of time-dependent variability, varies over time. With this metric, the lifetime of the circuit, or the time the circuit is working within a pre-defined yield threshold, is another crucial metric, even fundamental in many applications that require a high degree in accuracy for its calculation. This work proposes a new efficient simulation methodology to estimate the lifetime using a stochastic reliability simulator that can provide accurate yield and lifetime metrics for analog circuits while keeping CPU times low.

A Size-Adaptive Time-Step Algorithm for Accurate Simulation of Aging in Analog ICs
P. Martín-Lloret, A. Toro-Frías, J. Martin, R. Castro-Lopez, E. Roca, R. Rodriguez, M. Nafria and F.V. Fernandez
Conference - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems ISCAS 2017
[abstract]
Variability is one of the main and critical challenges introduced by the continuous scaling in integrated technologies and the need for reliable ICs. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account time-zero (i.e., spatial or process variability) and time-dependent variability (i.e., aging). While process variability has been extensively treated, considerable efforts are currently being made to develop new simulation tools to evaluate the impact of aging, but very few works have been focused on reliability simulation for analog ICs. Most of the up to day models focused on the aging phenomena make use of the stress conditions of the analog circuit during its normal operation. However, many of the available solutions often miss the bi-directional link between stress and biasing and their changes over time and, therefore, accuracy losses occurs while evaluating the impact of aging in the circuit performance. This paper proposes a new size-adaptive time-step algorithm to efficiently update the stress conditions in the reliability simulation of analog ICs. Compared to similar solutions, the work presented here is able to attain similar accuracy levels with lower computational budgets.

CASE: A reliability simulation tool for analog ICs
P. Martín-Lloret, A. Toro-Frías, R. Castro-López, E. Roca, F.V. Fernández, J. Martin-Martinez, R. Rodriguez and M. Nafria
Conference - Int. Conf. on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods and Applications to Circuit Design SMACD 2017
[abstract]
With the evolution in the scale of integration in ICs, aging-related problems are becoming more important and, nowadays, solutions to cope with these issues are not yet mature enough, especially in the field of analog circuit simulation. CASE, the novel simulator presented in this paper, can evaluate the impact of reliability effects in analog circuits through a stochastic physic-based model. The implemented simulation flow is accurate and efficient in terms of CPU. The two main improvements over currently reported and commercial tools, is that the simulator can simultaneously take into account both time-zero and time-dependent variability, and that an adaptive method, to account for the strong link between biasing and stress, can improve the accuracy while keeping acceptable CPU times.

A Size-Adaptive Time-Step Algorithm for Accurate Simulation of Aging in Analog ICs
P. Martín, A. Toro, R. Castro, E. Roca, F.V. Fernández, J. Martín-Martínez and M. Nafría
Conference - Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems DCIS 2016
[abstract]
Variability is one of the main and critical challenges introduced by the continuous scaling in integrated technologies and the need for reliable ICs. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account time-zero (i.e., spatial or process variability) and time-dependent variability (i.e., aging). While process variability has been extensively treated, considerable efforts are currently being made to develop new simulation tools to evaluate the impact of aging, but very few works have been focused on reliability simulation for analog ICs. Most of the up to day models focused on the aging phenomena make use of the stress conditions of the analog circuit during its normal operation. However, many of the available solutions often miss the bi-directional link between stress and biasing and their changes over time and, therefore, accuracy losses occurs while evaluating the impact of aging in the circuit performance. This paper proposes a new size-adaptive time-step algorithm to efficiently update the stress conditions in the reliability simulation of analog ICs. Compared to similar solutions, the work presented here is able to attain similar accuracy levels with lower computational budgets.

Reliability simulation for analog ICs: Goals, solutions, and challenges
A. Toro-Frías, P. Martín-Lloret, J. Martin-Martinez, R. Castro-López, E. Roca, R. Rodriguez, M. Nafria and F.V. Fernández
Journal Paper - Integration, the VLSI Journal, vol. 55, pp 341-348, 2016
ELSEVIER    DOI: 10.1016/j.vlsi.2016.05.002    ISSN: 0167-9260    » doi
[abstract]
The need for new tools and simulation methodologies to evaluate the impact of all reliability effects in ICs is a critical challenge for the electronic industry. Issues due to process-related variations (also known as spatial variability) are well-known and off-the-shelf simulation methods are available. On the other hand, models and simulation methods for the aging-related problems, which are becoming more important with each technology node, are far less mature, specially for analog ICs. In this sense, transistor wear-out phenomena such as Bias Temperature Instability (BTI) and Hot Carriers Injection (HCI) cause a time-dependent variability that occurs together with the spatial variability. A fundamental missing piece in the design flow is an efficient and accurate simulation methodology for IC reliability. To this goal, several challenges should be addressed properly: the essential nature of the stochastic behavior of aging (and thus resorting to stochastic models rather than deterministic ones), the correlation between spatial and aging-related variability, and relationship between biasing, stress and aging in analog ICs, among others. This paper discusses some of these challenges in detail.

Scopus access Wok access