IMSE Publications

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Author: Roberto J. Román Hajderek
Year: Since 2002

Journal Papers

Secure Combination of IoT and Blockchain by Physically Binding IoT Devices to Smart Non-Fungible Tokens using PUFs
J. Arcenegui, R. Arjona, R. Román and I. Baturone
Journal Paper · Sensors, vol. 21, no. 9, article 3119, 2021
abstract      doi      pdf

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are widely used in blockchain to represent unique and non-interchangeable assets. Current NFTs allow representing assets by a unique identifier, as a possession of an owner. The novelty introduced in this paper is the proposal of smart NFTs to represent IoT devices, which are physical smart assets. Hence, they are also identified as the utility of a user, they have a blockchain account (BCA) address to participate actively in the blockchain transactions, they can establish secure communication channels with owners and users, and they operate dynamically with several modes associated with their token states. A smart NFT is physically bound to its IoT device thanks to the use of a physical unclonable function (PUF) that allows recovering its private key and, then, its BCA address. The link between tokens and devices is difficult to break and can be traced during their lifetime, because devices execute a secure boot and carry out mutual authentication processes with new owners and users that could add new software. Hence, devices prove their trusted hardware and software. A whole demonstration of the proposal developed with ESP32-based IoT devices and Ethereum blockchain is presented, using the SRAM of the ESP32 microcontroller as the PUF.


A Facial Authentication System using Post-Quantum-Secure Data Generated on Mobile Devices
P. López-González, R. Arjona, R. Román and I. Baturone
Conference · International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking MOBICOM 2022

This paper describes a demonstrator of a post-quantum-secure facial authentication system distributed between a mobile device acting as a client and a remote computer acting as an authentication server. Homomorphic encryption based on Classic McEliece, one of the fourth-round candidates of the NIST post-quantum standardization process, is carried out by the client for protecting the biometric data extracted from the users’ faces at enrollment and verification. The remote computer only stores and compares the received protected data, thus preserving user privacy. An Android App and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) were implemented at the client and the server, respectively, to show the system performance in terms of computation and security.

Post-Quantum Secure Communication with IoT Devices Using Kyber and SRAM Behavioral and Physical Unclonable Functions
R. Román, R. Arjona and I. Baturone
Conference · International Workshop on Attacks and Defenses for Internet-of-Things ADIoT 2022

For a secure Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystem, not only the estab-lishment of secure communication channels but also the authentication of devices is crucial. Authenticated key exchange protocols establish shared cryptographic keys between the parties and, in addition, authenticate their identities. Usually, the identities are based on a pair of private and public keys. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are widely used recently to bind physically the private key to a device. However, since PUFs are vulnerable to attacks, even non-invasive at-tacks without accessing the device, this paper proposes the use of Behavioral and Physical Unclonable Functions (BPUFs), which allow multimodal authentication and are more difficult to be virtually or physically cloned. In order to resist at-tacks from classic and quantum computers, this paper considers a Kyber key ex-change protocol. Recently, Kyber has been selected by the Post-Quantum Cryp-tography standardization process of the National Institute of Standards and Tech-nology (NIST) for key establishment protocols. In this work, we propose to strengthen a Kyber key exchange protocol with BPUFs extracted from SRAMs included in IoT devices. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposal in WiPy boards.

A Quantum-Resistant and Fast Secure Boot for IoT Devices using Hash-Based Signatures and SRAM PUFs
R. Román and I. Baturone
Conference · EAI International Conference on Safety and Security in Internet of Things SaSeIoT 2021

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